Total R&D cost per business entity employee for the current reporting period

This measure calculates the total research and development (R&D) cost per current business entity employee. R&D costs include all labor, materials, and overhead associated with discovering new knowledge and translating research findings into plans or designs for new products. This measure is part of a set of Cost Effectiveness measures that help companies understand all cost expenditures related to the process "develop and manage products and services."

Benchmark Data

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Measure Category:
Cost Effectiveness
Measure ID:
104146
Total Sample Size:
468 All Companies
Performers:
25th Median 75th
- - -
Key Performance Indicator:
Yes

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Compute this Measure

Units for this measure are dollars.

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Costs of research and development (R&D) / Number of business entity employees

Key Terms

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Cost effectiveness measures are those in which two related variables, one of which is the cost and one of which is the related outcome related to the expenditure are used to determine a particular metric value.

The metric value which represents the 50th percentile of a peer group. This could also be communicated as the metric value where half of the peer group sample shows lower performance than the expressed metric value or half of the peer group sample shows higher performance than the expressed metric value.

Full-time Employee

For the purpose of this survey, a regular full-time employee is hired for an indefinite period of time and is normally scheduled to work forty hours per week. Appointment is continuous, subject to satisfactory performance and availability of funding.

Part-time Employee

For the purpose of this survey, a regular part-time employee is hired for an indefinite period of time and is scheduled to work less than forty hours per week.

Temporary Employee

A temporary employee is employed for a finite period of time, to fulfill a time-limited role, or to fill the role of a permanent employee who is absent from work. The length of time an employee can work for the organization and be considered a temporary employee may be governed by employment legislation.

For survey purposes, a business entity is defined as an entity that:

  1. performs significant aspects of the processes for the surveys identified, or
  2. is part of a cost or revenue center within the company.

Within your organization, diverse departments may be geographically co-located, with closely integrated operations that form part of one "business entity" which may be a great distance apart. When trying to determine if related parts of your operation should be considered a single business entity, look for the following characteristics:

  • Do they operate closely together?
  • Do they serve many of the same customers?
  • Do they support the same region or product group?
  • Do they share any performance measures?
  • Is data meaningful at a consolidated level?

Examples of business entity definition:

  1. A general ledger accounting unit located in Germany has two groups. One performs general ledger accounting for the corporate headquarters, which has three business units. The other group does general ledger accounting for one of the three business units. In spite of their geographic co-location, their roles are substantially different and consolidating their data into a single response would make it less meaningful. Each group should be treated as a separate business entity.
  2. Three business units within a corporation use a shared services center for accounts payable and expense reimbursement, but are self-supporting for the other financial processes. The best approach is to make the shared services centre a separate business entity for accounts payable and expense reimbursement, and to retain the three original business units for the other financial processes.
  3. A global manufacturing company has five plant locations, each manufacturing product and each with its own logistics operations. For purposes of completing a manufacturing and logistics survey, they should be treated as five separate business entities.

Measure Scope

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Cross Industry (7.3.1)

  • 2.1 - Govern and manage product/service development program (19696)
    • 2.1.1 - Manage product and service portfolio (10061)
      • 2.1.1.1 - Evaluate performance of existing products/services against market opportunities (10063)
      • 2.1.1.2 - Confirm alignment of product/service concepts with business strategy (10066)
      • 2.1.1.3 - Prioritize and select new product/service concepts (10074)
      • 2.1.1.4 - Plan and develop cost and quality targets (10073)
      • 2.1.1.5 - Specify development timing targets (10075)
      • 2.1.1.6 - Plan for product/service offering modifications (10076)
    • 2.1.2 - Manage product and service life cycle (10067)
      • 2.1.2.1 - Develop plan for new product/service development and introduction/launch (16824)
      • 2.1.2.2 - Introduce new products/services (10077)
      • 2.1.2.3 - Retire outdated products/services (10078)
      • 2.1.2.4 - Identify and refine performance indicators (10079)
      • 2.1.2.5 - Conduct post launch review (11423)
        • 2.1.2.5.1 - Carry out post launch analytics to test the acceptability in the market (19646)
        • 2.1.2.5.2 - Review market performance (11424)
        • 2.1.2.5.3 - Review effectiveness of supply chain and distribution network (11425)
        • 2.1.2.5.4 - Apply data and analytics to review supply chain methodologies (19647)
        • 2.1.2.5.5 - Review quality and performance of the product/service (11426)
        • 2.1.2.5.6 - Conduct financial review (11427)
        • 2.1.2.5.7 - Conduct new product development process assessment (11428)
    • 2.1.3 - Manage patents, copyrights, and regulatory requirements (19985)
      • 2.1.3.1 - Conduct mandatory and elective reviews (19941)
      • 2.1.3.2 - Review infringement of patents and copyrights (16826)
      • 2.1.3.3 - Determine patent and copyright needs (16827)
      • 2.1.3.4 - Define product technical documentation management requirements (19697)
      • 2.1.3.5 - Manage regulatory requirements (12771)
        • 2.1.3.5.1 - Train employees on appropriate regulatory requirements (12772)
        • 2.1.3.5.2 - Maintain records for regulatory agencies (12773)
        • 2.1.3.5.3 - Manage regulatory submission life cycle (12776)
    • 2.1.4 - Manage product and service master data (11740)
      • 2.1.4.1 - Manage materials master lists (11741)
      • 2.1.4.2 - Manage bills of material (11742)
      • 2.1.4.3 - Manage routings (11743)
      • 2.1.4.4 - Manage specifications (11744)
      • 2.1.4.5 - Manage drawings (11745)
      • 2.1.4.6 - Manage product/material classification (11746)
      • 2.1.4.7 - Develop and maintain quality/inspection documents (11747)
      • 2.1.4.8 - Maintain process specification data (11748)
      • 2.1.4.9 - Manage traceability data (11749)
      • 2.1.4.10 - Review and approve data access requests (11750)
  • 2.2 - Generate and define new product/service ideas (19698)
    • 2.2.1 - Perform discovery research (10065)
      • 2.2.1.1 - Identify new technologies (10070)
      • 2.2.1.2 - Develop new technologies (10071)
      • 2.2.1.3 - Assess feasibility of integrating new leading technologies into product/service concepts (10072)
    • 2.2.2 - Generate new product/service concepts (19669)
      • 2.2.2.1 - Gather new product/service ideas and requirements (19986)
      • 2.2.2.2 - Analyze new product/service ideas and requirements (19987)
      • 2.2.2.3 - Evaluate new product/service inputs and requirements (19988)
      • 2.2.2.4 - Formulate new product/service concepts (19989)
      • 2.2.2.5 - Identify potential improvements to existing products and services (10068)
    • 2.2.3 - Define product/service development requirements (19990)
      • 2.2.3.1 - Define product/service requirements (11331)
        • 2.2.3.1.1 - Define basic functional requirements (19991)
        • 2.2.3.1.2 - Derive interoperability requirements for products and services (16808)
        • 2.2.3.1.3 - Derive safety requirements for products and services (16809)
        • 2.2.3.1.4 - Derive security requirements for products and services (16810)
        • 2.2.3.1.5 - Derive regulatory compliance requirements (16811)
        • 2.2.3.1.6 - Derive requirements from industry standards (16812)
        • 2.2.3.1.7 - Develop user experience requirements (19992)
        • 2.2.3.1.8 - Derive ‘services-as-a-product’ offering (16814)
      • 2.2.3.2 - Define post launch support model (16815)
      • 2.2.3.3 - Identify product/service bundling opportunities (17389)
  • 2.3 - Develop products and services (10062)
    • 2.3.1 - Design and prototype products and services (19993)
      • 2.3.1.1 - Assign resources to product/service project (10083)
        • 2.3.1.1.1 - Identify requirements for product/service design/development partners (19994)
      • 2.3.1.2 - Prepare high-level business case and technical assessment (10084)
      • 2.3.1.3 - Develop product/service design specifications (10085)
      • 2.3.1.4 - Develop user experience design specifications (16813)
      • 2.3.1.5 - Provide warranty-related recommendations (16817)
      • 2.3.1.6 - Document design specifications (10086)
      • 2.3.1.7 - Conduct mandatory and elective external reviews (10087)
      • 2.3.1.8 - Design products/services (19995)
        • 2.3.1.8.1 - Design for manufacturing (16819)
        • 2.3.1.8.2 - Design for product servicing (16820)
        • 2.3.1.8.3 - Design for re-manufacturing (16821)
        • 2.3.1.8.4 - Review product troubleshooting methodology (16822)
        • 2.3.1.8.5 - Design and manage product data, design, and bill of materials (16818)
        • 2.3.1.8.6 - Design for product upgrades (16823)
      • 2.3.1.9 - Build prototypes/proof of concepts (10088)
      • 2.3.1.10 - Develop and test prototype production and/or service delivery process (10098)
      • 2.3.1.11 - Eliminate quality and reliability problems (10089)
      • 2.3.1.12 - Conduct in-house product/service testing and evaluate feasibility (10090)
      • 2.3.1.13 - Identify design/development performance indicators (10091)
      • 2.3.1.14 - Collaborate on design with suppliers and external partners (10092)
    • 2.3.2 - Test market for new or revised products and services (19996)
      • 2.3.2.1 - Prepare detailed market study (10093)
      • 2.3.2.2 - Conduct customer tests and interviews (10094)
      • 2.3.2.3 - Finalize product/service characteristics and business cases (10095)
      • 2.3.2.4 - Finalize technical requirements (10096)
    • 2.3.3 - Prepare for production/service delivery (19997)
      • 2.3.3.1 - Design and obtain necessary capabilities/materials and equipment (10099)
      • 2.3.3.2 - Identify requirements for changes to manufacturing/delivery processes (10097)
      • 2.3.3.3 - Request engineering/process change (11418)
      • 2.3.3.4 - Install and validate production/service delivery process (10100)
        • 2.3.3.4.1 - Monitor initial production runs (11417)
      • 2.3.3.5 - Validate launch procedures (19998)