Total cost of the phase 'design and develop product/services' per $1,000 revenue

This measure calculates the total cost (per $1,000 revenue) of the phase ‘design and develop products/services,' which includes assigning resources to product/service projects; preparing business cases and technical assessments; developing and documenting design specifications; building prototypes; eliminating quality and reliability problems; conducting in-house testing; identifying performance indicators; collaborating with suppliers; and contracting manufacturers. The total cost is the sum of outsourced, overhead, personnel, system, and other costs. This measure is part of a set of Cost Effectiveness measures that help companies understand all cost expenditures related to the process "design, build, and evaluate products and services."

Benchmark Data

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Measure Category:
Cost Effectiveness
Measure Id:
103616
Total Sample Size:
439 All Companies
Performers:
25th
Median
75th

Compute this Measure

Units for this measure are dollars. Lower values are better.

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Total cost to design and develop products/services / (Total business entity revenue * 0.0010)

Key Terms

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Process Cost Components

Total cost for a process, process group, or function consists of the following five components.

Internal/In-house operating cost consists of the first four components (personnel, systems, overhead, and other).

Personnel Cost

Personnel cost is the cost associated with personnel compensation and fringe benefits of employees (i.e., those classified as FTEs which includes both full-time and salaried/hourly employees) contributing to each respective process. Personnel cost should include all of the following costs.

Employee Compensation: Includes salaries and wages, bonuses, overtime and benefits.

Fringe: Includes contributions made towards the employees' government retirement fund, workers compensation, insurance plans, savings plans, pension funds/retirement plans, and stock purchase plans. This should also include special allowances, such as relocation expenses and car allowances.

Systems Cost

Systems costs include all expenses, paid or incurred, in conjunction with:
Computer hardware or computer software acquired by the organization or provided to the organization through service contracts.

Any related costs to process, service and maintain computer hardware or computer software. The costs of providing and maintaining services for each applicable process (e.g., computer system(s) processing (CPU) time, network/system communication charges, maintenance costs for applications and data storage). This includes the costs related to LANs, WANs, etc. This does not include one-time costs for major new systems developments/replacements. Consultant fees should not be included in depreciation of new system implementations. Include only those costs that occur more than six (6) months after implementation, as normal system maintenance costs. Any systems cost (e.g., maintenance) which is outsourced to a third party supplier should be captured in the separate cost category labeled outsourced cost.

Systems cost should include all salaries, overtime, employee benefits, bonuses or fees paid to full-time, part-time or temporary employees or independent contractors who perform services relating to computer hardware, computer software, processing or systems support.

Overhead Costs

For the purpose of this study, provide the total actual overhead costs for the year related to the specified process. These are costs that cannot be identified as a direct cost of providing a product or a service. Include the primary allocated costs such as occupancy, facilities, utilities, maintenance costs, and other major costs allocated to the consuming departments. Exclude systems costs that are allocated, since these will be captured separately as systems cost.

Other Cost

Other costs are costs associated with the specified process, but not specifically covered in personnel cost, systems cost, overhead cost and outsourced cost in this questionnaire. These other costs include costs for supplies and office equipment, travel, training and seminars. Include the cost of telephones, except for that portion captured in systems cost.

External/Outsourced Cost

In determining outsourced cost, include the total cost of outsourcing all aspects of the specified process to a third-party supplier. Exclude one-time charges for any type of restructuring or reorganization. Outsourced costs should also include costs for intracompany outsourcing (i.e., reliance on a shared services center or other business entity).

Total Annual Revenue/Net Revenue

Total annual revenue is net proceeds generated from the sale of products or services. This should reflect the selling price less any allowances such as quantity, discounts, rebates and returns.
For government/non-profit organizations, please use your non-pass-through budget. If your business entity is a support unit and therefore does not directly generate revenue, then provide the revenue amount for the units you support.For insurance companies the total annual revenue is the total amount of direct written premiums, excluding net investment income.
Note: Business entity revenue needs to only include inter-company business segment revenue when the transactions between those business segments are intended to reflect an arm's length transfer price and would therefore meet the regulatory requirements for external revenue reporting.

Cost Effectiveness

Cost effectiveness measures are those in which two related variables, one of which is the cost and one of which is the related outcome related to the expenditure are used to determine a particular metric value.

Measure Scope

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Cross Industry (6.1.1)

  • 2.2.1.1 - Assign resources to product/service project (10083) - Allocating resources to the design, development, and evaluation of product/service concepts. Allocate funds, personnel, and time for developing the new and/or revised products/services. Begin to design the potential new product/service concepts that have been prioritized and selected for further development.
  • 2.2.1.2 - Prepare high-level business case and technical assessment (10084) - Preparing a business-level business case and a technical feasibility assessment in order to move the product/service projects forward. Weigh the costs and benefits of designing, developing, and evaluating the shortlisted product/service concepts. Prepare a business case to justify the product/service projects. Conduct a technical appraisal to ensure that the organization has the technical know-how and resources to further develop these concepts.
  • 2.2.1.3 - Develop product/service design specifications (10085) - Creating design specifications. Create specifications for the design of new or revised product/service concepts as a measure to meet during development. Have the senior functional-level solutioning or design staff create a framework of compliance standards for these products/services.
  • 2.2.1.4 - Document design specifications (10086) - Documenting requirements to meet in the design of new or revised products/services. Specify technical, quality, and costing requirements, as well as ergonomic, safety, and servicing requirements for such products/services. Ensure the information presented can be understood by the personnel executing the design and includes examples, anecdotal references, and illustrations.
  • 2.2.1.5 - Conduct mandatory and elective external reviews (legal, regulatory, standards, internal) (10087) - Conducting any mandatory and elective appraisals of the product/service design specifications in order to ensure compliance with external standards. Carry out external reviews of specifications created for the development of new product/service designs. Conduct mandatory appraisals such as legal and regulatory, as well as any optional assessments that, for instance, pitch the specifications against industrial benchmarks.
  • 2.2.1.6 - Build prototypes (10088) - Building prototypes for shortlisted product/service concepts. Develop prototypes for those product/service concepts that have been identified for further development. Provide proof-of-concepts, and test any processes involved. Build prototypes in line with the design specifications already outlined. Enlist the solutioning and/or design staff.
  • 2.2.1.7 - Eliminate quality and reliability problems (10089) - Eliminating any problems relating to utility of the product/service over the course of its expected lifetime. Tweak the prototype in order to comply with the required quality and reliability standards. Further refine the prototype, so it may be subjected to testing.
  • 2.2.1.8 - Conduct in-house product/service testing and evaluate feasibility (10090) - Carrying out an in-house appraisal of the prototypes in order to validate design and feasibility. Test the product/service prototypes to confirm their compliance with design and usability standards. Corroborate the viability of the design, and validate the feasibility of their production. Identify any areas for improvement.
  • 2.2.1.9 - Identify design/development performance indicators (10091) - Identifying performance parameters. Determine the parameters to measure performance of the design and development of the product/service concepts into prototypes.
  • 2.2.1.10 - Collaborate on design with suppliers and contract manufacturers (10092) - Interacting with suppliers and manufactures to determine design decisions. Collaborate with vendors, suppliers, contractors, and subcontractors to verify feasibility of co-producing the prototype's design. Ensure that efforts can be coordinated with other stakeholders in the organization's supply chain ecosystem at the time of manufacturing, producing, or packaging the finished product/service.